Florida   Exotic Pest Plant Council's

2003

 

List of Invasive Species

 

Purpose of the List:  To focus attention on --

Ø      the adverse effects of exotic pest plants on Florida's biodiversity and ecosystems,

Ø      the habitat losses from exotic pest plant infestations,

Ø      the impacts on endangered species via habitat loss and alteration,

Ø      the need to prevent habitat losses through pest-plant management,

Ø      the socio-economic impacts of these plants (e.g., increased wildfires in Melaleuca areas),

Ø      changes in the seriousness of different pest plants over time,

Ø      the need to provide information that helps managers set priorities for control programs.

 

 

 

 

DEFINITIONS: Exotic—a species introduced to Florida, purposefully or accidentally, from a natural range outside of Florida.  Native—a species whose natural range included Florida at the time of European contact (1500 AD).  Naturalized exotic—an exotic that sustains itself outside cultivation (it is still exotic; it has not "become" native).  Invasive exotic—an exotic that not only has naturalized but is expanding on its own in Florida plant communities.

 

Abbreviations used: 

for "Gov. list": P = Prohibited by Fla. Dept. of Environmental Protection, N = Noxious weed listed by Fla. Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services, U = Noxious weed listed by U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

for "Reg. Dis.": N = north, C = central, S = south, referring to each species' current distribution in general regions of Florida (not its potential range in the state). See following map.

 

For additional information on distributions of particular species by county, visit the University of South Florida’s Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants web site, www.plantatlas.usf.edu.  Many of those species entries also have habit and close-up pictures of the species.  Additional images for some species may be found at the “Introduced Species” page on the Univ. of Florida Herbarium website at Fairchild Tropical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium . and at the University of Florida;s Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plant Website, http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/.  For other additional information on plants included in this list, see related links and pages at this web site on the home page menu.

 

 

Category I - Invasive exotics that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives. This definition does not rely on the economic severity or geographic range of the problem, but on the documented ecological damage caused.

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

  EPPC

   Cat.

Gov.

list

Reg.

Dist.

Abrus precatorius

rosary pea

I

 

C, S

Acacia auriculiformis

earleaf acacia

I

 

S

Albizia julibrissin

mimosa, silk tree

I

 

N, C

Albizia lebbeck

woman's tongue

I

 

C, S

Ardisia crenata (= A.

    crenulata )

coral ardisia

I

 

N, C

Ardisia elliptica (=A.

   humilis)

shoebutton ardisia

I

 

S

Asparagus densiflorus

asparagus-fern

I

 

C, S

Bauhinia variegata

orchid tree

I

 

C, S

Bischofia javanica

bischofia

I

 

C, S

Calophyllum antillanum

   (=C. calaba;  C.

  inophyllum misapplied)

santa maria (names "mast wood," "Alexandrian laurel" used in cultivation)

I

 

S

Casuarina equisetifolia

Australian pine

I

P

N,C,S

Casuarina glauca

suckering Australian pine

I

P

C, S

Cinnamomum camphora

camphor-tree

I

 

N,C,S

Colocasia esculenta

wild taro

I

 

N,C,S

Colubrina asiatica

lather leaf

I

 

S

Cupaniopsis anacardioides

carrotwood

I

N

C, S

Dioscorea alata

winged yam

I

N

N,C,S

Dioscorea bulbifera

air-potato

I

N

N,C,S

Eichhornia crassipes

water-hyacinth

I

P

N,C,S

Eugenia uniflora

Surinam cherry

I

 

C, S

Ficus microcarpa (F.

 nitida and F. retusa var.

  nitida misapplied)

laurel fig

I

 

C, S

Hydrilla verticillata

hydrilla

I

P, U

N,C,S

Hygrophila polysperma

green hygro

I

P, U

N,C,S

Hymenachne amplexicaulis

West Indian marsh grass

I

 

C, S

Imperata cylindrica (I.

 brasiliensis misapplied)

cogon grass

I

N, U

N, C, S

Ipomoea aquatica

waterspinach

I

P, U

C

Jasminum dichotomum

Gold Coast jasmine

I

 

C, S

Jasminum fluminense

Brazilian jasmine

I

 

C, S

Lantana camara

lantana, shrub verbena

I

 

N,C,S

Ligustrum lucidum

glossy privet

I

 

N, C

Ligustrum sinense

Chinese privet, hedge privet

I

 

N,C,S

Lonicera japonica

Japanese honeysuckle

I

 

N,C,S

Lygodium japonicum

Japanese climbing fern

I

N

N,C, S

Lygodium microphyllum

Old World climbing fern

I

N

C, S

Macfadyena unguis-cati

cat's claw vine

I

 

N,C, S

Manilkara zapota

sapodilla

I

 

S

Melaleuca quinquenervia

melaleuca, paper bark

I

P, N, U

C, S

Melia azedarach

Chinaberry

I

 

N,C,S

Mimosa pigra

catclaw mimosa

I

P, N, U

C, S

Nandina domestica

nandina, heavenly bamboo

I

 

N

Nephrolepis cordifolia

sword fern

I

 

N,C,S

Nephrolepis multiflora

Asian sword fern

I

 

C, S

Neyraudia reynaudiana

Burma reed; cane grass

I

N

S

Paederia cruddasiana

sewer vine, onion vine

I

N

S

Paederia foetida

skunk vine

I

N

N,C,S

Panicum repens

torpedo grass

I

 

N,C,S

Pennisetum purpureum

Napier grass

I

 

C, S

Pistia stratiotes

waterlettuce

I

P

N,C,S

Psidium cattleianum

   (=P. littorale)

strawberry guava

I

 

C, S

Psidium guajava

guava

I

 

C, S

Pueraria montana (=P.

   lobata)

kudzu

I

N, U

N,C, S

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

downy rose-myrtle

I

N

C, S

Rhoeo spathacea (see Tradescantia spathacea)

 

 

 

 

Ruellia brittoniana (may

    also be referred to R.

   tweediana)

Mexican petunia

I

 

N, C, S

Sapium sebiferum

popcorn tree, Chinese tallow tree

I

N

N, C, S

Scaevola sericea  

 (=Scaevola taccada var.

  sericea, S. frutescens)

scaevola, half-flower, beach naupaka

I

 

C, S

Schefflera actinophylla (=Brassaia actinophylla)

schefflera, Queensland umbrella tree

I

 

C, S

Schinus terebinthifolius

Brazilian pepper

I

P, N

N, C, S

Senna pendula (=Cassia

   coluteoides)

climbing cassia, Christmas cassia, Christmas senna

I

 

C, S

Solanum tampicense

   (=S. houstonii)

wetland night shade, aquatic soda apple

I

N, U

C, S

Solanum viarum

tropical soda apple

I

N, U

N, C, S

Syngonium podophyllum

arrowhead vine

I

 

C, S

Syzygium cumini

jambolan, Java plum

I

 

C, S

Tectaria incisa

incised halberd fern

I

 

S

Thespesia populnea

seaside mahoe

I

 

C, S

Tradescantia fluminensis

white-flowered wandering jew

I

 

N, C

Tradescantia spathacea

   (= Rhoeo spathacea,

   Rhoeo  discolor)

oyster plant

I

 

S

Urochloa mutica ( =

  Brachiaria mutica)

Pará grass

I

 

C, S

 

 

Category II - Invasive exotics that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species.  These species may become ranked Category I, if ecological damage is demonstrated.

 

Scientific Name

Common Name

  EPPC

   Cat.

Gov.

list

Reg.

Dist.

Adenanthera pavonina

red sandalwood

II

 

S

Agave sisalana

sisal hemp

II

 

C, S

Aleurites fordii (=

   Vernicia fordii)

tung oil tree

II

 

N, C

Alstonia macrophylla

devil-tree

II

 

S

Alternanthera

    philoxeroides

alligator weed

II

P

N, C, S

Antigonon leptopus

coral vine

II

 

N, C, S

Aristolochia littoralis

calico flower

II

 

N, C

Asystasia gangetica

Ganges primrose

II

 

C, S

Begonia cucullata

wax begonia

II

 

N, C

Broussonetia papyrifera

paper mulberry

II

 

N, C

Callisia fragrans

inch plant, spironema

II

 

C, S

Casuarina

   cunninghamiana

Australian pine

II

P

C, S

Cecropia palmata

trumpet tree

II

 

S

Cestrum diurnum

day jessamine

II

 

C, S

Chamaedorea seifrizii

bamboo palm

II

 

S

Cryptostegia

   madagascariensis

rubber vine

II

 

C, S

Cyperus involucratus (C. alternifolius misapplied)

umbrella plant

II

 

C, S

Cyperus prolifer

dwarf papyrus

II

 

C

Dalbergia sissoo

Indian rosewood, sissoo

II

 

C, S

Elaeagnus pungens

thorny eleagnus

II

 

N, C

Epipremnum pinnatum

    cv. Aureum

pothos

II

 

C, S

Ficus altissima

false banyan, council tree

II

 

S

Flacourtia indica

governor's plum

II

 

S

Hemarthria altissima

limpo grass

II

 

C, S

Hibiscus tiliaceus

mahoe, sea hibiscus

II

 

C, S

Ipomoea fistulosa (= I.

    carnea ssp. fistulosa)

shrub morning-glory

II

P

C, S

Jasminum sambac

Arabian jasmine

II

 

S

Kalanchoe pinnata

life plant

II

 

C, S

Koelreuteria elegans

flamegold tree

II

 

C, S

Leucaena leucocephala

lead tree

II

 

N, C, S

Limnophila sessiliflora

Asian marshweed

II

P

N, C, S

Livistona chinensis

Chinese fan palm

II

 

C, S

Merremia tuberosa

wood-rose

II

 

S

Murraya paniculata

orange-jessamine

II

 

S

Myriophyllum spicatum

Eurasian water-milfoil

II

P

N, C, S

Nymphoides cristata

snowflake

II

 

C, S

Panicum maximum

Guinea grass

II

 

C, S

Passiflora biflora

twin-flowered passion vine

II

 

S

Pennisetum setaceum

green fountain grass

II

 

S

Phoenix reclinata

Senegal date palm

II

 

C, S

Phyllostachys aurea

golden bamboo

II

 

N, C

Pteris vittata

Chinese brake fern

II

 

N, C, S

Ptychosperma elegans

solitary palm

II

 

S

Rhynchelytrum repens

Natal grass

II

 

N, C, S

Ricinus communis

castor bean

II

 

N, C, S

Sansevieria

    hyacinthoides

bowstring hemp

II

 

C, S

Sesbania punicea

purple sesban, rattlebox

II

 

N, C, S

Solanum diphyllum

twinleaf nightshade

II

 

N, C, S

Solanum jamaicense

Jamiaca nightshade

II

 

C

Solanum torvum

susumber, turkey berry

II

N, U

N, C, S

Syagrus romanzoffiana

   (= Arecastrum

   romanzoffianum)

queen palm

II

 

C, S

Syzygium jambos

rose-apple

II

 

C, S

Terminalia catappa

tropical almond

II

 

C, S

Terminalia muelleri

Australian almond

II

 

C, S

Tribulus cistoides

puncture vine, bur-nut

II

 

N, C, S

Urena lobata

Caesar's weed

II

 

N, C, S

Wedelia trilobata

wedelia

II

 

N, C, S

Wisteria sinensis

Chinese wisteria

II

 

N, C

Xanthosoma

    sagittifolium

malanga, elephant ear

II

 

N, C, S

 

 

 Citation example: 

FLEPPC. 2003. List of Florida's Invasive Species. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. Internet: http://www.fleppc.org/03list.htm

 

 

The 2003 list was prepared by the FLEPPC Plant List Committee:

 

Keith A. Bradley

Institute for Regional Conservation

22601 S.W. 152nd Ave.

Miami, FL 33170

 

Kathy Craddock Burks (CHAIR)
Bureau of Invasive Plant Management
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
3800 Commonwealth Blvd., MS 705
Tallahassee, FL 32399

 

Nancy Craft Coile, Botanist Emeritus

Division of Plant Industry
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
22804 N.W. CR-2054, Alachua, FL 32615

 

James G. Duquesnel
Florida Park Service
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 487

Key Largo, FL 33037

 

Edward Freeman

The Nature Conservancy

1413 Boulevard of the Arts

Sarasota, FL 34236

 

David W. Hall
Private Consulting Botanist
3666 N.W. 13th Place
Gainesville, FL 32605

 

Roger L. Hammer

Miami-Dade Parks Department

Castellow Hammock Nature Center

22301 S.W. 162nd Ave.

Miami, FL 33030

 

Kenneth A. Langeland
Center
for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, IFAS
University
of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st St.

Gainesville, FL 32606

Robert W. Pemberton
Agricultural Research Station

U.S. Department of Agriculture
2305 College Ave.
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314

 

Daniel B. Ward
Department
of Botany
University
of Florida

220 Bartram Hall
Gainesville, FL 326ll

 

Richard P. Wunderlin

Institute for Systematic Botany
Department of
Biological Sciences
University
of South Florida
Tampa, FL 33620