FLEPPC

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council

Florida EPPC's 2009 Invasive Plant Species List

PURPOSE OF THE LIST:

To focus attention on —

FLEPPC List Definitions:

Exotic - a species introduced to Florida, purposefully or accidentally, from a natural range outside of Florida.

Native – a species whose natural range included Florida at the time of European contact (1500 AD).

Naturalized exotic – an exotic that sustains itself outside cultivation (it is still exotic; it has not “become” native).

Invasive exotic – an exotic that not only has naturalized, but is expanding on its own in Florida native plant communities.

Abbreviations:

Government List (Gov. List):

P = Prohibited by Florida Department of Environmental Protection

N = Noxious weed listed by Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services

U = Noxious weed listed by U.S. Department of Agriculture

Regional Distribution (Reg. Dist.):
referring to each species’ current distribution in general regions of Florida (not its potential range in the state).

N = North Florida

C = Central Florida

S = South Florida


Category I

Invasive exotics that are altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures or ecological functions, or hybridizing with natives. This definition does not rely on the economic severity or geographic range of the problem, but on the documented ecological damage caused.


Species names below are linked to corresponding pages in Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas (first edition), by Ken Langeland and Kathy Craddock Burks, eds. 1998. University of Florida, Gainesville, 165 pp.


Scientific Name Common Name Gov. List Reg. Dist.
Abrus precatorius rosary pea N C, S
Acacia auriculiformis earleaf acacia   C, S
Albizia julibrissin mimosa, silk tree   N, C
Albizia lebbeck woman’s tongue   C, S
Ardisia crenata (=A. crenulata misapplied) coral ardisia   N, C, S
Ardisia elliptica (=A. humilis misapplied) shoebutton ardisia N C, S
Asparagus aethiopicus (=A. sprengeri; A. densiflorus misapplied) asparagus-fern   N, C, S
Bauhinia variegata orchid tree   C, S
Bischofia javanica bishopwood   C, S
Calophyllum antillanum (=C. calaba and C. inophyllum misapplied) santa maria (names "mast wood", "Alexandrian laurel" used in cultivation)   S
Casuarina equisetifolia Australian-pine, beach sheoak P, N N, C, S
Casuarina equisetifolia Australian-pine, beach sheoak P, N N, C, S
Casuarina glauca suckering Australian-pine, gray sheoak P, N C, S
Cinnamomum camphora camphor tree   N, C, S
Colocasia esculenta wild taro   N, C, S
Colubrina asiatica lather leaf N S
Cupaniopsis anacardioides carrotwood N C, S
Dioscorea alata winged yam N N, C, S
Dioscorea bulbifera air-potato N N, C, S
Eichhornia crassipes water-hyacinth P N, C, S
Eugenia uniflora Surinam cherry   C, S
Ficus microcarpa (F. nitida and F. retusa var. nitida misapplied) laurel fig   C, S
Hydrilla verticillata hydrilla P, U N, C, S
Hygrophila polysperma green hygro P, U N, C, S
Hymenachne amplexicaulis West Indian marsh grass   C, S
Imperata cylindrica (I. brasiliensis misapplied) cogon grass N, U N, C, S
Ipomoea aquatica water-spinach P, U C
Jasminum dichotomum Gold Coast jasmine   C,S
Jasminum fluminense Brazilian jasmine   C, S
Lantana camara (= L. strigocamara) lantana, shrub verbena   N, C, S
Ligustrum lucidum glossy privet   N, C
Ligustrum sinense Chinese privet, hedge privet   N, C, S
Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle   N, C, S
Ludwigia peruviana Peruvian primrosewillow   N, C, S
Luziola subintegra Tropical American water grass   S
Lygodium japonicum Japanese climbing fern N N, C, S
Lygodium microphyllum Old World climbing fern N C, S
Macfadyena unguis-cati cat's claw vine   N, C, S
Manilkara zapota sapodilla   S
Melaleuca quinquenervia melaleuca, paper bark P, N, U C, S
Melinis repens (= Rhynchelytrum repens) Natal grass N, C, S
Mimosa pigra catclaw mimosa P, N, U C, S
Nandina domestica nandina, heavenly bamboo   N, C
Nephrolepis cordifolia sword fern   N, C, S
Nephrolepis brownii (= N. multiflora) Asian sword fern   C, S
Neyraudia reynaudiana Burma reed, cane grass N S
Nymphoides cristata snowflake   C, S
Paederia cruddasiana sewer vine, onion vine N S
Paederia foetida skunk vine N N, C, S
Panicum repens torpedo grass   N, C, S
Pennisetum purpureum Napier grass   N, C, S
Pistia stratiotes water-lettuce P N, C, S
Psidium cattleianum (=P. littorale) strawberry guava   C, S
Psidium guajava guava   C, S
Pueraria montana var. lobata
(=P. lobata)
kudzu N N, C, S
Rhodomyrtus tomentosa downy rose-myrtle N C, S
Rhynchelytrum repens
(=Melinis repens)
Natal grass   N, C, S
Ruellia brittoniana
(= R. tweediana misapplied)
Mexican petunia   N, C, S
Salvinia minima water spangles   N, C, S
Sapium sebiferum (=Triadica sebifera) popcorn tree, Chinese tallow tree N N, C, S
Scaevola taccada
(=Scaevola sericea, S. frutescens)
scaevola, half-flower, beach naupaka N C, S
Schefflera actinophylla (=Brassaia actinophylla) schefflera, Queensland umbrella tree   C, S
Schinus terebinthifolius Brazilian pepper P, N N, C, S
Scleria lacustris Wright's nutrush   N, C, S
Senna pendula var. glabrata
(=Cassia coluteoides)
climbing cassia, Christmas cassia, Christmas senna   C, S
Solanum tampicense (=S. houstonii) wetland nightshade, aquatic soda apple N, U C, S
Solanum viarum tropical soda apple N, U N, C, S
Syngonium podophyllum arrowhead vine   N, C, S
Syzygium cumini jambolan plum, Java plum   C, S
Tectaria incisa incised halberd fern   S
Thespesia populnea seaside mahoe   C, S
Tradescantia fluminensis small-leaf spiderwort   N, C
Urochloa mutica
(= Brachiaria mutica)
Para grass   C, S


Category II

Invasive exotics that have increased in abundance or frequency but have not yet altered Florida plant communities to the extent shown by Category I species. These species may become ranked Category I, if ecological damage is demonstrated.


Species names below are linked to corresponding pages in Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas (first edition), by Ken Langeland and Kathy Craddock Burks, eds. 1998. University of Florida, Gainesville, 165 pp.


Scientific Name Common Name Gov. List Reg. Dist.
Adenanthera pavonina red sandalwood   S
Agave sisalana sisal hemp   C, S
Aleurites fordii (=Vernicia fordii) tung oil tree   N, C
Alstonia macrophylla devil tree   S
Alternanthera philoxeroides alligator weed P N, C, S
Antigonon leptopus coral vine   N, C, S
Aristolochia littoralis calico flower   N, C, S
Asystasia gangetica Ganges primrose   C, S
Begonia cucullata wax begonia   N, C, S
Blechum pyramidatum green shrimp plant, Browne’s blechum   N, C, S
Broussonetia papyrifera paper mulberry   N, C, S
Callisia fragrans inch plant, spironema   C, S
Callistemon viminalis bottlebrush, weeping bottlebrush S
Casuarina cunninghamiana river sheoak, Australian-pine P C, S
Cecropia palmata trumpet tree   S
Cestrum diurnum day jessamine   C, S
Chamaedorea seifrizii bamboo palm   S
Clematis terniflora Japanese clematis   N, C
Cryptostegia madagascariensis rubber vine   C, S
Cyperus involucratus (C. alternifolius misapplied) umbrella plant   C, S
Cyperus prolifer dwarf papyrus   C, S
Dactyloctenium aegyptium Durban crowfootgrass   N, C, S
Dalbergia sissoo Indian rosewood, sissoo   C, S
Elaeagnus umbellata silverberry, autumn olive   N
Elaeagnus pungens silverthorn, thorny olive   N, C
Epipremnum pinnatum cv. 'Aureum' pothos   C, S
Ficus altissima false banyan, council tree   S
Flacourtia indica governor’s plum   S
Hemarthria altissima limpo grass   C, S
Hibiscus tiliaceus (=Talipariti tiliaceum) mahoe, sea hibiscus   C, S
Hyparrhenia rufa jaragua   N, C, S
Ipomoea fistulosa (=I. carnea ssp. fistulosa) shrub morning-glory P C, S
Jasminum sambac Arabian jasmine   S
Kalanchoe pinnata life plant   C, S
Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana (=K. formosana; K. paniculata misapplied) flamegold tree   C, S
Leucaena leucocephala lead tree N N, C, S
Landoltia punctata (= Spirodela punctata) Spotted Duckweed   N, C, S
Limnophila sessiliflora Asian marshweed P, U N, C, S
Livistona chinensis Chinese fan palm   C, S
Melia azedarach Chinaberry   N, C, S
Melinis minutiflora Molassesgrass   C,S
Merremia tuberosa wood-rose   S
Murraya paniculata orange-jessamine   S
Myriophyllum spicatum Eurasian water-milfoil P N, C, S
Panicum maximum (=Urochloa maxima, Megathyrsus maximus) Guinea grass   N, C, S
Passiflora biflora two-flowered passion vine   S
Pennisetum setaceum green fountain grass   S
Phoenix reclinata Senegal date palm   C, S
Phyllostachys aurea golden bamboo   N, C
Pittosporum pentandrum Philippine pittosporum, Taiwanese cheesewood   S
Pteris vittata Chinese brake fern   N, C, S
Ptychosperma elegans solitaire palm   S
Rhoeo spathacea (see Tradescantia spathacea)    
Ricinus communis castor bean   N, C, S
Rotala rotundifolia roundleaf toothcup, dwarf Rotala   S
Sansevieria hyacinthoides bowstring hemp   C, S
Sesbania punicea purple sesban, rattlebox   N, C, S
Solanum diphyllum two-leaf nightshade   N, C, S
Solanum jamaicense Jamaica nightshade   C
Solanum torvum susumber, turkey berry N, U N, C, S
Sphagneticola trilobata (=Wedelia trilobata) wedelia   N, C, S
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (=S. urticifolia) nettle-leaf porterweed   S
Syagrus romanzoffiana (=Arecastrum romanzoffianum) queen palm   C, S
Talipariti tiliaceum (= Hibiscus tiliaceus) mahoe, sea hibiscus   C, S
Terminalia catappa tropical-almond   C, S
Terminalia muelleri Australian-almond   C, S
Tradescantia spathacea (=Rhoeo spathacea, Rhoeo discolor) oyster plant   S
Tribulus cistoides puncture vine, burr-nut   N, C, S
Urena lobata Caesar’s weed   N, C, S
Vitex trifolia simple-leaf chaste tree   C, S
Washingtonia robusta Washington fan palm   C, S
Wedelia (see Sphagneticola above)    
Wisteria sinensis Chinese wisteria   N, C
Xanthosoma sagittifolium malanga, elephant ear   N, C, S

Citation example:

FLEPPC. 2009. List of Invasive Plant Species. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. Internet: http://www.fleppc.org/list/list. htm or Wildland Weeds Vol. 12(4): 13-16. Fall 2009.


The 2009 list was prepared by the FLEPPC Plant List Committee:

Keith A. Bradley – Chair (2006-present), The Institute for Regional Conservation, 22601 SW 152nd Ave., Miami, FL 33170, (305) 247-6547, bradley@regionalconservation.org

Janice A. Duquesnel, Florida Park Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, P.O. Box 1052, Islamorada, FL 33036 , (305) 664-8455, Janice.Duquesnel@dep.state.fl.us

David W. Hall, Private Consulting Botanist, 3666 NW 13th Place, Gainesville, FL 32605, (352) 375-1370

Roger L. Hammer, Miami-Dade Parks Department, Castellow Hammock Nature Center, 22301 S.W. 162nd Ave., Miami, FL 33030, kaskazi44@comcast.net

Patricia L. Howell, Broward County Parks, Environmental Section, 950 NW 38th St., Oakland Park, FL 33309, (954) 357-8137, phowell@broward.org

Colette C. Jacono, Department of Agronomy, Center for Aquatic & Invasive Plants, IFAS, University of Florida, 7922 NW 71st St., Gainesville, FL 32653, (352) 392-6894, colettej@ufl.edu

Kenneth A. Langeland, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, IFAS, University of Florida, 7922 NW 71st St., Gainesville, FL 32606, (352) 392-9614, gator8@ufl.edu

Chris Lockhart, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, c/o P.O. Box 243116, Boynton Beach, FL 33424-3116, (850) 509-6482, clockhart@fnai.org

Gil Nelson, Gil Nelson Associates, 157 Leonard’s Dr., Thomasville, GA 31792, gil@gilnelson.com

Robert W. Pemberton, Invasive Plants Research Lab, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 3225 College Ave., Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312, Robert.Pemberton@ars.usda.gov

Jimi L. Sadle, Everglades National Park, 40001 State Road 9336, Homestead, FL 33034, (305) 242-7806, Jimi_Sadle@nps.gov

Robert W. Simons, 1122 SW 11th Ave., Gainesville, FL 32601-7816

Sandra M. Vardaman, Alachua County Forever Land Conservation Program, Alachua County Environmental Protection Dept., 201 SE 2nd Ave., Suite 201, Gainesville, Florida 32601, (352) 264-6803, smvardaman@alachuacounty.us

Daniel B. Ward, Department of Botany, University of Florida, 220 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611

Richard P. Wunderlin, Institute for Systematic Botany, Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620,(813) 974-2359, rwunder@cas.usf.edu

FLEPPC Database

The Florida Exotic Pest Plant Database contains over 6,000 sight records of infestations of FLEPPC Category I and Category II species in Florida public lands and waters. 360 species are recorded. Nearly all of the records are from local, state, and federal parks and preserves; a few records document infestations in regularly disturbed public lands such as highway or utility rights-of-way. Natural area managers and other veteran observers of Florida’s natural landscapes submit these records, with many supported further by voucher specimens housed in local or regional herbaria for future reference and verification. New and updated observations can be submitted online at www.fleppc.org/EDDMapS/ This database, along with other plant-data resources such as the University of South Florida Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants at www.plantatlas.usf.edu, the Florida Natural Areas Inventory database at www.fnai.org, and The Institute for Regional Conservation Floristic Inventory of South Florida database at www.regionalconservation.org, provides important basic supporting information for the FLEPPC List of Invasive Plant Species.

Images of FLEPPC

Listed species may be found at one or more of the following websites: University of South Florida Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants, www.plantatlas.usf.edu; the “Introduced Species” page on the University of Florida Herbarium website, www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/cat/digitalimagingprojects.htm; at Fairchild Tropical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium, www.virtualherbarium.org/vhportal.html; The Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium at FSU, http://herbarium.bio.fsu.edu/index.php; and at the University of Florida’s Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu. Please note that greater success and accuracy in searching for plant images is likely if you search by scientific name rather than a common name. Common names often vary in cultivation and across regions. For additional information on plants included in this list, see related links and pages at www.fleppc.org.

Use of the FLEPPC List

FLEPPC encourages use of the Invasive Species List for prioritizing and implementing management efforts in natural areas, for educating lay audiences about environmental issues, and for supporting voluntary invasive plant removal programs. When a non-native plant species is to be restricted in some way by law, FLEPPC encourages use of the List as a first step in identifying species worth considering for particular types of restriction. For more information on using the FLEPPC List of Invasive Plant Species, see Wildland Weeds Summer 2002 issue (Vol. 5, No. 3), pp. 16-17.


NOTE: Not all exotic plants brought into Florida become pest plants in natural areas. The FLEPPC List of Invasive Plant Species represents only about 10% of the 1,300+ exotic species that have been introduced into Florida and subsequently established outside of cultivation. Most escaped exotics usually present only minor problems in highly disturbed areas (such as roadsides). And there are other exotics cultivated in Florida that are "well behaved" — that is, they do not escape cultivation at all.