Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 

1999

List of Florida's Most Invasive Species

 

Purpose: To focus attention on:

  1. The impacts exotic pest plants have on native bio-diversity in Florida ecosystems.
  2. The impact of exotic pest plants on the integrity of native plant community functions.
  3. Habitat losses due to exotic plant infestations.
  4. The impacts of exotic plants on endangered species via habitat loss and alteration (e.g., Cape Sable seaside sparrow).
  5. The need to prevent such losses by comprehensive management for exotic pest plants.
  6. The socioeconomic impacts of exotic pest plants (e.g., increased wildfires in Melaleuca).
  7. Changes in the seriousness of different exotic pest plants over time.
  8. The need to provide information that will help managers set priorities for management.

Definitions: Exotic–a non-indigenous species, or one introduced to this state, either purposefully or accidentally. A naturalized exotic, such as those listed here, has escaped into the wild where it reproduces on its own either sexually or asexually. Native–a species already occurring in Florida at the time of European contact (1500). Invasive– a variable condition defined by the category to which the species is assigned.

Abbreviations used: for "Government listed": P=Prohibited by Fla. Dept. of Environmental Protection, N=Noxious weed as listed by Fla. Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services and/or U.S. Department of Agriculture.

For information on distributions within Florida, see: http://www.usf.edu/~isb/projects/atlas/mapindex.html

For other information:
Langeland, K. A. and K. Craddock Burks (editors). 1999. Identification & Biology of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas.  Production is supported by 14 federal and private agencies, including Florida EPPC. 

Category I–Species that are invading and disrupting native plant communities in Florida. This definition does not rely on the economic severity or geographic range of the problem, but on the documented ecological damage caused.

Scientific Name

Common Name

FLEPPC
Rank

Government
Listed

Abrus precatorius

rosary pea

I

 
Acacia auriculiformis

earleaf acacia

I

 
Albizia julibrissin

mimosa, silk tree

I

 
Albizia lebbeck

woman's tongue

I

 
Ardisia crenata (= A. crenulata )

coral ardisia

I

 
Ardisia elliptica (=A. humilis)

shoebutton ardisia

I

 
Asparagus densiflorus

asparagus-fern

I

 
Bauhinia variegata

orchid tree

I

 
Bischofia javanica

bischofia

I

 
Calophyllum antillanum (=C. calaba; C. inophyllum, often misapplied in cultivation)

santa maria (names "mast wood," "Alexandrian laurel" used in cultivation)

I

 
Casuarina equisetifolia

Australian pine

I

P

Casuarina glauca

suckering Australian pine

I

P

Cestrum diurnum

day jessamine

I

 
Cinnamomum camphora

camphor-tree

I

 
Colocasia esculenta

wild taro

I

 
Colubrina asiatica

lather leaf

I

 
Cupaniopsis anacardioides

carrotwood

I

N

Dioscorea alata

winged yam

I

N

Dioscorea bulbifera

air-potato

I

N

Eichhornia crassipes

water-hyacinth

I

P

Eugenia uniflora

Surinam cherry

I

 
Ficus microcarpa (F. nitida andF. retusa var. nitida misapplied)

laurel fig

I

 
Hydrilla verticillata

hydrilla

I

P, N

Hygrophila polysperma

green hygro

I

P, N

Hymenachne amplexicaulis

West Indian marsh grass

I

 
Imperata cylindrica (Imperata brasiliensis misapplied)

cogon grass

I

N

Ipomoea aquatica

waterspinach

I

P, N

Jasminum dichotomum

Gold Coast jasmine

I

 
Jasminum fluminense

Brazilian jasmine

I

 
Lantana camara

lantana, shrub verbena

I

 
Ligustrum sinense

Chinese privet, hedge privet

I

 
Lonicera japonica

Japanese honeysuckle

I

 
Lygodium japonicum

Japanese climbing fern

I

N

Lygodium microphyllum

Old World climbing fern

I

N

Macfadyena unguis-cati

cat's claw vine

I

 
Melaleuca quinquenervia

melaleuca,  paper bark

I

P, N

Melia azedarach

Chinaberry

I

 
Mimosa pigra

catclaw mimosa

I

P,N

Nandina domestica

nandina, heavenly bamboo

I

 
Nephrolepis cordifolia

sword fern

I

 
Nephrolepis multiflora

Asian sword fern

I

 
Neyraudia reynaudiana

Burma reed; cane grass

I

N

Paederia cruddasiana

sewer vine, onion vine

I

N

Paederia foetida

skunk vine

I

N

Panicum repens

torpedo grass

I

 
Pennisetum purpureum

Napier grass

I

 
Pistia stratiotes

water lettuce

I

P

Psidium cattleianum (=P. littorale)

strawberry guava

I

 
Psidium guajava

guava

I

 
Pueraria montana (=P. lobata)

kudzu

I

N

Rhodomyrtus tomentosa

downy rose-myrtle

I

N

Rhoeo spathacea (=R. discolor; Tradescantia spathacea)

oyster plant

I

 
Sapium sebiferum

popcorn tree, Chinese tallow tree

I

N

Scaevola sericea (=Scaevola taccada var. sericea, S. frutescens)

scaevola, half-flower, beach naupaka

I

 
Schefflera actinophylla (=Brassaia actinophylla)

schefflera, Queensland umbrella tree

I

 
Schinus terebinthifolius

Brazilian pepper

I

P, N

Senna pendula (=Cassia coluteoides)

climbing cassia, Christmas cassia, Christmas senna

I

 
Solanum tampicense (=S. houstonii)

wetland night shade, aquatic soda apple

I

N

Solanum torvum

susumber, turkey berry

I

N

Solanum viarum

tropical soda apple

I

N

Syzygium cumini

jambolan, Java plum

I

 
Tectaria incisa

incised halberd fern

I

 
Thespesia populnea

seaside mahoe

I

 
Tradescantia fluminensis

white-flowered wandering jew

I

 
Urochloa mutica ( = Brachiaria mutica)

ParĂ¡ grass

I

 

 

Category II—Species that have shown a potential to disrupt native plant communities. These species may become ranked as Category I, but have not yet demonstrated disruption of natural Florida communities.

 

Scientific Name

 

Common Name

                                               

FLEPPC
  Rank

Government
Listed

Adenanthera pavonina

red sandalwood

II

Agave sisalana

sisal hemp

II

Aleurites fordii

tung oil tree

II

Alstonia macrophylla

devil-tree

II

Alternanthera philoxeroides

alligator weed

II

P

Anredera leptostachya

Madeira vine

II

Antigonon leptopus

coral vine

II

Aristolochia littoralis

calico flower

II

Asystasia gangetica

Ganges primrose

II

Begonia cucullata

begonia

II

Broussonetia papyrifera

paper mulberry

II

Callisia fragrans

inch plant, spironema

II

Casuarina cunninghamiana

Australian pine

II

P

Cereus undatus (=Hylocereus undatus)

night-blooming cereus

II

Clerodendrum bungei

strong-scented glorybower

II

Cryptostegia madagascariensis

rubber vine

II

Cyperus alternifolius (=C. involucratus)

umbrella plant

II

Cyperus prolifer

dwarf papyrus

II

Dalbergia sissoo

Indian rosewood, sissoo

II

Eleagnus pungens

thorny eleagnus

II

Enterolobium contortisilquum

ear-pod tree

II

Epipremnum pinnatum cv. Aureum

pothos

II

Ficus altissima

false banyan

II

Flacourtia indica

governor's plum

II

Flueggea virosa

Chinese waterberry

II

Hibiscus tiliaceus

mahoe, sea hibiscus

II

Hiptage benghalensis

hiptage

II

Jasminum sambac

Arabian jasmine

II

Koelreuteria elegans

golden rain tree

II

Leucaena leucocephala

lead tree

II

Ligustrum lucidum

glossy privet

II

Livistona chinensis

Chinese fan palm

II

Melinis minutiflora

molasses grass

II

Merremia tuberosa

wood-rose

II

Murraya paniculata

orange-jessamine

II

Myriophyllum spicatum

Eurasian water-milfoil

II

P

Ochrosia parviflora (=O. elliptica)

kopsia

II

Oeceoclades maculata

ground orchid

II

Passiflora biflora

twin-flowered passion vine

II

Passiflora foetida

stinking passion-flower

II

Phoenix reclinata

Senegal date palm

II

Phyllostachys aurea

golden bamboo

II

Pteris vittata

Chinese brake

II

Ptychosperma elegans

solitary palm

II

Rhynchelytrum repens

Natal grass

II

Ricinus communis

castor bean

II

Ruellia brittoniana (=R. tweediana)

Mexican petunia

II

Sansevieria hyacinthoides (=S. trifasciata)

bowstring hemp

II

Sesbania punicea

purple sesban, rattlebox

II

Solanum diphyllum

twinleaf nightshade

II

Solanum jamaicense

Jamiaca nightshade

II

Syngonium podophyllum

arrowhead vine

II

Syzygium jambos

rose-apple

II

Terminalia catappa

tropical almond

II

Tribulus cistoides

puncture vine, burnut

II

Triphasia trifoliata

lime berry

II

Urena lobata

Caesar's weed

II

Wedelia trilobata

wedelia

II

Wisteria sinensis

Chinese wisteria

II

Xanthosoma sagittifolium

malanga, elephant ear

II

Citation example:

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council. FLEPPC 1999 List of Florida's Most Invasive Species. Internet: http:// www.fleppc.org/99list.htm

The 1999 list was prepared by the FLEPPC,  Exotic Pest Plant List Committee:

Daniel F. Austin (CO-CHAIR)
Department of Biological Sciences
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, FL 33431

Kathy Craddock Burks (CO-CHAIR)
Invasive Plant Management
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
3915 Commonwealth Blvd., MS 710
Tallahassee, FL 32399

Nancy Coile
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Div. of Plant Industry
P.O. Box 147100
Gainesville, FL 32614

James Duquesnel
Florida Park Service
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
P.O. Box 487, Key Largo, FL 33037

David Hall
Consulting botanist
6241 N.W. 23rd St.
Gainesville, FL 32653

Ken Langeland
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, IFAS,
University of Florida
7922 N.W. 71st St., Gainesville, FL 32606

Joe Maguire
Department of Natural Areas Management
Miami-Dade County
111 N.W. 1st St., Ste. 1310, Miami, FL 33128

Mark McMahon
Restoration consultant
6110  S.W. 55th Ct
Davie,  FL 33314

Robert Pemberton
Agricultural Research Station, U.S. Department of Agriculture
2305 College Ave.
Ft.Lauderdale, FL 33314

Daniel B. Ward
Department of Botany
220 Bartram Hall, University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 326ll

Richard P. Wunderlin
Department of Biological Sciences
University of South Florida
Tampa, FL 33620